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Articles


Some Rules for Making the Sacrifice for Eed Al-Adha

Author : المفتي الدكتور نضال سلطان

Date Added : 22-09-2016


Some Rules for Making the Sacrifice for Eed Al-Adha

By Dr. Mufti Nidal Sultan

 

All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of The Worlds, and may His blessings and peace be upon our Prophet Mohammad and upon all his family and companions.
Al-Udhhiyah is one of the great rites of Allah, and Muslims make sure to offer it annually for its great virtue as Aisha narrated from the Prophet(PBUH) as saying: “The son of Adam does not do any deed on the Day of Sacrifice that is dearer to Allah than shedding blood. It will come on the Day of Resurrection with its horns and cloven hoofs and hair. Its blood is accepted by Allah before it reaches the ground. So be content when you do it.”{At-Tirmizi}.
As Eed-ul-adha is at our door step, people tend to ask many questions concerning the exact rules for making the sacrifice for Eed Al-Adha because delay in asking could lead to making errors as far as this great rite is concerned. In principle, a Muslim should ask about the rules which govern any act of devotion that he intends to offer to Almighty Allah so as to perform it as perfect as possible to be rewarded for it. Following is a number of key rules of Udhhiyah in question and answer form. I pray that Allah makes them useful to us and whoever reads them for He is capable of that.
1-What is the ruling on Udhhiyah?
It is a confirmed Sunnah for any Muslim who can afford it, and it is disliked for such a Muslim not to offer it. It becomes obligatory if he had vowed to offer it or had specified an animal that he owns as his Eed Udhhiyah/sacrifice, such as saying "This is my Eed Sacrifice."
2-What is Udhhiyah and What animals can be sacrificed?
Udhhiyah is from the livestock(cows, camels, sheep and goats) sacrificed to bring a Muslim closer to Allah.
3-When does the time for slaughtering the Udhhiyah begin and when does it end?
It begins after the Eed-ul-adha prayer and ends by the sunset of the fourth day of Eed.
4-Does the Udhhiyah avail the one who slaughtered it before the Eed prayer?
No it doesn`t. In this case, it is considered a slaughtered animal, not an Udhhiyah.
5-Who should offer the Udhhiyah?
It should be offered by every discerning Muslim who is able to do it.
6-Should the Muslim make the intention of Udhhiyah upon slaughtering the animal?
Yes, he should. Intention is a condition upon slaughtering the animal, but it isn`t so for one who had vowed to offer a certain Udhhiyah.
7-A Muslim has slaughtered a sheep on one of the days of Eed, but didn`t intend it as an Udhhiyah because he wasn`t aware that its time extends until the sunset of the fourth day of Eed. Is it permissible to consider it as an Udhhiyah?
One who has slaughtered a sheep without intending it as an Udhhiyah isn`t permitted to consider it as such. It is simply an animal slaughtered to be eaten.
8-Is it permissible to slaughter one sheep as both an Aqiqah and an Udhhiyah?
No, it isn`t permissible to do so because there is a different reason for slaughtering each.
9-Is it permissible for one performing Hajj to offer an Udhhiyah, and is the animal offered in Tamatu type of Hajj considered an Udhhiyah?
It is permissible for one performing Hajj to offer an Udhhiyah whether in Mina, Makka or his own country, but the sacrifice that he had offered in Tamatu Hajj isn`t considered an Udhhiyah.
10-Is it prohibited for one intending to offer an Udhhiyah to cut his hair and clip his nails?
It is preferable that he doesn't cut his hair and clip his nails during the first ten days of the month of ZulHijjah, but this isn`t obligatory. Therefore, his Udhhiyah is acceptable, but he has missed the reward of following the Sunnah of the Prophet(PBUH).
11-Is it a condition that the one offering the Udhhiyah should slaughter it himself?
It is preferable that he slaughters it himself if he is able to do so, but it isn`t a condition.
12-Is it a condition that the one offering the Udhhiyah should attend its slaughtering?
It is preferable that he does so, but it isn`t a condition.
13-Does one Udhhiyah avail all members of the household?
One Udhihyah avails the head of the household and his dependents.
14-He has vowed to offer an Udhhiyah. Is he permitted to eat from its meat?
Neither he nor his dependents are permitted to eat from it.
15-He had vowed to offer a specific sheep as an Udhhiyah, but Eed passed and he didn`t deliver his vow. What is due on him?
He  is obliged to slaughter that sheep as a make up for the missed vow.
16-He had vowed to offer a specific sheep as an Udhhiyah, but it died before the Eed day?
If it died without negligence on his part, then he is free from the liability since it got out of his possession through the vow and became an item entrusted with him for safekeeping. However, if it died out of  his negligence, then he is obliged to make up for it.
17-He has vowed to offer a sheep as an Udhhiyah. Is it permissible for him to offer a cow instead, and is he permitted to eat from it?
One who has vowed to sacrifice a sheep is permitted to sacrifice a cow instead, and he is permitted to eat from the six extra shares of meat that he has offered for charity since a cow equals seven sheep.
18-He has vowed to offer a specific sheep as an Udhhiyah, but it was lost so he sacrificed another. Later on, the lost one returned. Should he slaughter it as well?
If  the vowed Udhhiyah was lost, and he sacrificed another in its place it avails him, and he doesn`t have to slaughter the one that was lost.
19-A butcher was asked to slaughter five sheep as Udhhiyas for five people, so he did without specifying which sheep belongs to whom. What should they do?
Each should take one on consensual basis and their sacrifices are considered valid because blood has been spilt.
20-What is the age of the animal to be sacrificed?
Camels should have completed five years, cows two years, sheep one year; and six months and more for a lamb provided that it has been fattened.
21-Is it permissible to sacrifice female and pregnant animals?
It is permissible to sacrifice female animals, but it is disliked to sacrifice pregnant ones.
22-Is it permissible for a group of people to share a cow as an Udhhiyah although they have different intentions: some, Aqiqa, some, Udhhiyah and some,  meat?
It is permissible to share a camel or a cow as an Udhhiyah even if some intended it as Aqiqa, and others  intended it as Udhhiyah.
23-Is it permissible for the members of the same household to share the purchase of  a sheep as an Udhhiyah?
It isn`t valid to share a sheep as an Udhhiyah; however, it is permissible for the members of the same household to share its price and gift it to one of them. This way, they receive the reward of charity, and he includes them in the intention of Udhhiyah.
24-Is it permissible to join others in the reward of the Udhhiyah?
There is no harm if one offered an Udhhiyah and joined others in the reward.
25-Is it permissible for a person to offer an Udhhiyah on behalf of another without asking the latter`s permission?
A person isn`t permitted to offer a sacrifice on behalf of someone else without asking their permission unless it is his household or the ruler sacrificing on behalf of the Muslim nation, and covering its price from the public treasury.
26-Is it permissible to offer an Udhhiyah on behalf of the deceased?
It is permissible to offer an Udhhiyah on behalf of the deceased if he, before his death, left a will to that effect, or made it a condition in his Waqf(Endowment). Moreover,  Hanbali scholars have permitted sacrificing on behalf of the deceased even without  permission(voluntarily).
27-Is it better to sacrifice a sheep or to share the price of a cow ? And is it better to sacrifice a cow or seven sheep?
Slaughtering one sheep is better than sharing the price of a cow, and sacrificing seven sheep is better than sacrificing a cow.
28-Is there a preferred color and size for an Udhhiyah? 
In terms of the order of colors, the best Udhhiyah is the white, the yellow, the red and the black. In terms of size, the best Udhhiyah is the fattest.
29-What is the criterion that makes a sacrificial animal defective?
It is every defect that affects the meat or other edible parts of the animal such as the ear; therefore, the blind, the lame, the one suffering from mange and the mad aren`t valid as sacrificial animals.
30-He has vowed to sacrifice a specific sheep, but discovered a defect that makes it invalid as such. What should he do?
If he has vowed to slaughter a specific sheep as a sacrifice, then he is obliged to slaughter it even if it was defective, but it won`t be considered as a sacrifice.
31-If  a sacrifice became defective prior to slaughtering it, does that affect its validity as such?
If the defect prevents it from serving as a sacrifice, then it won`t be valid as such. In other words, it won`t clear his(the one offering it) liability.
32-Is it permissible to sacrifice a castrated ram?
Castration  doesn`t affect the animal`s validity as sacrifice. On the contrary, castration makes the animal fatter and tastier. Therefore, it is permissible to sacrifice castrated livestock(camels, cows, sheep, goats).
33-Is it permissible to sacrifice an animal whose horns are broken, or doesn`t have horns at all?
It is permissible to sacrifice a sheep with broken horns or no horns at all because it doesn`t affect the animal`s validity as a sacrifice. However, it is better to sacrifice the one that has horns for it looks better.
34-Is it permissible to sacrifice a sheep that was born with no ears?
A sheep born with no ears doesn`t fit as a sacrifice because it is defective.
35-Is it permissible to sacrifice a she-sheep that was born with no breast?
It is permissible to sacrifice a she-sheep that was born with no breast because it isn`t considered a defect.
36-Is it permissible to sacrifice a sheep whose ears were cut off, punched or split.
It isn`t permissible to sacrifice a sheep whose ears were cut off because it is considered a defect; whereas, it is permissible to sacrifice a sheep whose ears were punched or split because it isn`t considered a defect.
37-Is it permissible to sacrifice a sheep whose tail is cut off?
Parts of a sheep`s tail and butt that were cut off at young age don`t affect the animal`s validity as sacrifice since they can be compensated for by fattening. It is also permissible to sacrifice the sheep that was born without a tail.
38-A Muslim offered a sacrifice but delayed distributing its meat, so it became rotten. What is due on him?
If  the sacrifice was voluntary, he should buy an amount of meat that suffices one poor person; whereas, if it was a vowed sacrifice, then he should slaughter a new one.
39-Is it permissible to delay distributing the meat of the sacrifice?
It is permissible to delay distributing the meat of the sacrifice provided that the animal is slaughtered during the days of Eid.
40-A person has kept the meat of his sacrifice in the fridge, but it became rotten due to bad storing conditions or constant electrical breakdowns. What should he do?
If  the meat became rotten out of  that person`s negligence, then he should buy an amount of meat that suffices one poor person. If it was a vowed sacrifice and its meat became rotten out of his negligence, then he should slaughter a new one, but if he wasn`t negligent, then he doesn`t have to offer a new sacrifice because in this case it takes the ruling of an item entrusted for safekeeping.
41-Is it from Sunnah that one eats from his sacrifice, and how much meat is he allowed to eat?
It is from Sunnah that one eats from his sacrifice`s meat and liver, but it  shouldn`t be more than a third of the whole animal.
42-Is it valid to purchase an already slaughtered sacrifice?
It isn`t valid to consider any of the already slaughtered livestock as sacrifice; rather, a person should make the intention of sacrifice upon slaughtering the animal.
43-Is it valid to sell or to exchange any portion of the sacrifice`s meat?
It isn`t valid for a person to sell any portion of his sacrifice, and it is forbidden to do so whether the sacrifice was vowed or voluntary. It is also impermissible for him to exchange any of it and doing so is invalid.
44-A person went to tan the skin of his sacrifice, but the person in the tannery told him to take an already tanned skin instead along with paying a fee, is this valid?
Exchanging non-tanned skin of a sacrifice with a tanned one is a form of sale, so it isn`t valid.
45-Is it valid to give the butcher from the meat of sacrifice?
If it was given him as a gift or a charity, then it is permissible, but if it is given as part of his wage, then it isn`t.
46-Is it permissible for a person to benefit from the skin of his sacrifice?
It is permissible for a person to benefit from the skin of his sacrifice so long as it isn`t a vowed sacrifice. He is also allowed to gift it, but he isn`t allowed to sell it.
47-Is it valid to cook the meat of the sacrifice, then distribute it?
The portion of a sacrifice`s meat due for distribution must be given in raw form.
48-How much meat is a person permitted to take from his sacrifice to his household?
It is recommended that he takes a third, but he should give at least an amount that suffices one poor Muslim, and that is estimated as one kilo and a half.
49-What is due on one who has eaten all his sacrifice and gave nothing to charity?
One who has eaten or gifted all the meat of his sacrifice, but gave nothing to charity, should buy an amount of meat that suffices one poor Muslim  and give it to him.
50-Does banqueting on one`s sacrifice along with inviting some poor people to attend it avail for the charity portion due from that sacrifice?
It is a condition for the validity of a sacrifice to give one kilo and a half to one poor Muslim person. Inviting a poor person to a banquet is tantamount to giving him permission to eat from the meat of that sacrifice, but not placing that meat in his possession. Therefore, one who made that banquet should buy one kilo and a half of meat and give it to one poor Muslim person.
Note: One kilo and a half is the minimum amount liable as a charity from a sacrifice.
51-Is it permissible to buy a sacrifice in installments or to borrow money to buy it?
It is permissible to buy a sacrifice in installments and to borrow money to buy it; however, it isn`t preferable for the poor to do so because they aren`t required to offer a sacrifice, and Allah The Almighty burdens not a soul beyond its capacity.
52-Is it permissible to deputize charitable societies to slaughter Eed sacrifices?
It is permissible to deputize someone or a charitable society to slaughter Eed sacrifices provided that they adhere to the conditions that should be available in a sacrifice (defects, age, time of  slaughtering, and distribution of  meat). It is better that a person slaughters his sacrifice himself in order to receive its complete reward and blessing.
53-Is it permissible to deputize someone who lives in another country to slaughter the Eed sacrifice on behalf of someone who doesn`t live in that same country?
It is permissible to deputize someone living in a certain country to slaughter the Eed sacrifice on behalf of someone who doesn`t live in that same country.
54-Is the sacrifice offered by an indebted person valid?
The sacrifice offered by an indebted person is valid, but it is better that he pays off his debt especially if its time of payment has passed.
55-Is it permissible to offer a sacrifice while in a non-Muslim country?
Offering a sacrifice is permissible in any country, and Islamic Sharia didn`t stipulate that it should be offered in a Muslim country. However, it is a condition for the validity of the sacrifice to give from its meat to at least one poor Muslim person because it is an act of worship, and if that wasn`t possible then the person offering it should eat it with his household.
56-Is it permissible for the person who was given from the meat of the sacrifice or who was given its skin to sell it?
The rich, who were given from the meat of the sacrifice, aren`t permitted to sell it because it was given to be eaten, not to be possessed; whereas, the poor are permitted to sell the meat and skin that they have collected because it was given to be possessed.
57-Is it valid to purchase a sacrifice on the basis that its price is to be determined after slaughtering it and weighing its meat?
It isn`t valid to slaughter a sacrifice except after possessing it via a valid  contract where its price is clearly determined; therefore, it is imperative that the price is agreed upon prior to the slaughtering.
58-Is it valid to purchase relief cards that authorize their holder to receive a sacrifice?
It is permissible for the poor to sell those cards before receiving the sacrifice; whereas, it isn`t valid for the person who purchased such a card to sell it because it is imperative that he receives the sacrifice first, then he is permitted to sell it if he wishes to do so.

 

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