Articles

The Role of Logic in the Proofs of the Existence of Allah The Almighty
Author : Dr.Mosa Al-Zaa'tra
Date Added : 17-04-2024

The Role of Logic in the Proofs of the Existence of Allah The Almighty

 

All perfect praise be to Allah the Lord of the Worlds. May His peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Mohammad and upon all his family and companions.

 

Throughout the ages of thought and civilization, discussions have revolved around the issue of the existence of Allah The Almighty and proving it through evidence and proofs. Therefore, this issue constitutes an important part of the Islamic creed branches. It has become necessary to view these discussions from a correct perspective based on rational sciences, especially the science of logic, due to its vital role in correcting arguments, evidence, and examining the proofs indicating the existence of Allah The Almighty, and addressing any doubts that may arise regarding those proofs.

 

Logic is important for all the flawless Sharia (Islamic law), as they rely on it. The eminent jurist Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami, may Allah have mercy on him, said: 'Among the tools of the Sharia science, such as interpretation, hadith, and jurisprudence/Fiqh, is logic, which people have today. It is a beneficial science that is free from ambiguity, and what was previously mixed with it were philosophies contrary to the Sharia. Logic is essential for understanding true meanings of words, as is the grammar of the Arabic language. It is also part of the foundations of jurisprudence because Sharia rulings must be conceptualized and affirmed, whether positively or negatively. Logic serves as the tool for clarifying conceptualization and affirmation, making it a necessary science of Sharia. It includes what has been derived from the Sharia or what knowledge based on the Sharia relies upon, making it a necessity like theology or Arabic grammar. This is why Al-Ghazali praised it, saying: 'There is no trust in jurisprudence for one, who lacks logic,' meaning those whose logical foundations are not firmly rooted in their minds, like the diligent scholars from amongst the righteous predecessors or through learning [1]."

 

The importance of this lies in many aspects that become clear through studying the works of scholars in logic, the science of the principles of religion, the science of the principles of jurisprudence, grammar, and other disciplines, including:

 

1. Understanding terms [2] and definitions: The discussions in the five [3] main topics of logic clarify how to arrange terms, definitions, and distinguish between things. Scholars have said, "When you differ, judge by the terms."

 

2. Giving the branch the same judgment of the root to arrive at the conclusions, an example of which is when scholars of Islamic jurisprudence seek to prove the message of the Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him) and the religion of Islam. They assert, "The Prophet is truthful," with the proof consisting of two conclusive premises. The first premise is: "The Prophet brought miracles," and anyone who brings miracles is truthful. This leads to the conclusion: "The Prophet is truthful." Similarly, when we say that learning logic is obligatory as a collective duty (Logic is a collective obligation), the proof is a based on the first form: "Logic is necessary for establishing the evidences of Sharia and proving the existence of Allah." Anything necessary for establishing the evidences of Sharia and proving the obligation of Allah is a collective obligation, leading to the conclusion that logic is a collective obligation.

 

3. It is known that logic was initially a branch of philosophy that studied the correct relationships between ideas and judgments. One of the most important tools used by scholars of theology and creed to prove the existence of Allah is the issues of logic and its branches. Therefore, logic did not remain purely philosophical as it once was; it became a Sharia science with its summarized and detailed books, both concise and extensive, written by scholars of the noble Sharia. They revised and corrected everything that the previous philosophers had presented. This is why it became a religious science, as mentioned by the scholar Ibn Hajar al-Haytami and other scholars of the Sharia.

 

I will present some important aspects of the science of logic regarding proving the existence of Allah The Almighty.

 

1. The role of logic in analyzing arguments:

*Logicians use their tools to analyze the arguments presented in this science to prove the existence of Allah. This includes cosmological, rational, and divine (revelation) arguments.

*Logic enables a better understanding of the structure of arguments and their analysis with greater logical coherence, thereby enhancing the strength of the evidence for the existence of Allah.

Using Rational Arguments:

 

2. Logicians use rational arguments, such as the argument from causality [to analyze the concept of the first cause and demonstrate that the universe must have an absolute external cause, which is Allah The Almighty], and the argument from perfection to prove that the existence of Allah is the logical explanation for the phenomena of the universe and life.

 

3. Logic of Cause and Effect Relationships:  

Logic is used to understand the relationship between causes and effects, which means that the existence of Allah explains what happens in reality in terms of the relationship between causes and the resulting effects, which are collectively evident in the universe and in our daily lives. This connection enhances our knowledge of the Creator, glorified and exalted be He.

For example, the logic of cause and effect [4] can be used to demonstrate that the existence of the universe itself points to the existence of the Creator, contributing to strengthening the presence of Allah as a cognitive result after contemplation of these causes.

 

4. Rooting Religious Concepts in Logic:  

 

Logic is used to root religious concepts in a logical and rational manner, contributing to clarifying the foundations of faith and beliefs in a way that is understandable, interpretable, and persuasive to those who do not believe in the existence of a Creator for this universe.

This approach of basing religious arguments on logical premises aids in inviting people to Allah with insight, making religion provable to everyone, whether believers or non-believers. This helps avoid blind imitation or condemnable bias, as logic plays a significant role in clarifying and analyzing arguments related to the existence of Allah. It is a valuable tool for convincing both atheists and believers alike to explore this profound issue.

 

5. Dispelling Doubts and Ambiguities from Certainty-Based Arguments:

A person who thinks logically and with clear reasoning can answer questions that challenge their thinking and can refute doubts presented by opponents. On the other hand, a person who presents arguments randomly and irrationally lacks the ability to answer questions and doubts effectively.

One of the examples of logical thinking that indicates the existence of the Creator is when we contemplate the world around us and observe its changes from existence to non-existence and from non-existence to existence. We arrive at definite, inevitable conclusions that are not subject to probabilities:

 

The first conclusion: The universe came into existence after non-existence.

 

The second conclusion: The universe did not bring itself into existence.

 

These results have been proven true through observation and reason, akin to necessities. They are inevitable, established conclusions that have no alternatives. There is no room for objection or exclusion of these conclusions; they are firmly established. Since they are proven to us, we consider them as premises leading to the final conclusion: that there exists a pre-existing Agent before the universe, the Maker of the world and its Creator deserving of worship alone, possessing the attributes of majesty and perfection without any partners. This is what needs to be proven.

 

In logic, when we reach a proven, indisputable conclusion, we must respect it because it is impossible to arrive at a contradictory conclusion as long as our reasoning is based on a sound foundation.

 

The question of whether the Creator has a creator remains logically incorrect for several reasons:

Accepting this question leads us into what is known as "infinite regress" or "regressus ad infinitum [5]," which are well-known logical fallacies. We do not accept any logical fallacies in our reasoning because they lead to errors in conclusions.

 

Accepting this question implies acceptance of contradictions, which is not valid. However, it is important to clarify the aspect of contradiction inherent in both infinite regress and regressus ad infinitum, as explained in books of creed and theology.

 

Therefore, we can say: the science of logic represents a fundamental pillar as a scientific and cognitive tool in proving the existence of Allah The Almighty and discussing the evidence for that, engaging with opponents, and analyzing arguments and evidence logically and systematically. It contributes to assessing the strength of arguments and the validity of the reasoning used. It is one aspect of arguing with wisdom and good counsel as advocated by the Quran, as Allah Says (What means): "Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good instruction, and argue with them in a way that is best. Indeed, your Lord is most knowing of who has strayed from His way, and He is most knowing of who is [rightly] guided." [An-Nahil/125].

 

([1]) Al-Haythami, Ibn Hajar, Al-Fath Al-Mubin with explanation of the forty hadiths, p. 573.

[2] Al-Hadd: Indicates the essence of something.

[3] The topic of the five universals is part of the concepts in the science of logic, aiding in defining things, conceptualizing them, distinguishing between them, and relating some to others. The five universals are: genus, difference, species, universal property, and individual property. [Excerpt from the book "Isagoge Explanation," p. 32].

[4] It refers to the relationship between cause and effect, and the degree of connection between action and outcome.

[5] The reality of "the round": Each of the two entities depends on the other, as if it were assumed that Zaid caused Amr's existence, and Amr caused Zaid's existence, then each of the two entities - Zaid and Amr - depends on the other; since each of them caused the other's existence, which also occurs in more than two entities. However, the "round" is impossible because it necessitates each of the newly created beings to precede and lag behind the other (simultaneously), which is a contradiction.

The reality of "sequence": Things follow one another endlessly in past time, as if it were assumed that Zaid caused Amr's existence, and Amr caused Khalid's existence, and Khalid caused Bakr's existence, and so on endlessly in past time. The newly created beings followed one another endlessly in past time. However, "sequence" is impossible because it requires the existence of events that have no beginning, which is invalid because every event has a beginning, as indicated by the evidence. [Al-Marghani, "Tala' Al-Bushra" p.115].

 

هذا المقال يعبر عن رأي كاتبه، ولا يعبر بالضرورة عن رأي دائرة الإفتاء العام

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